Energy: A Beginner's Guide
When the demand for oil grew, one of the technical innovations was the introduction of horizontal drilling during the 1980s. "Horizontal wells can intersect and drain multiple fractures within, and penetrate larger volumes of, the oil-bearing rock: many can produce two to five times as much as vertical or slightly deviated wells drilled into the same reservoir," writes Vaclav Smil in Energy: A Beginner's Guide (www.vivagroupindia.com). "By the 1990s, the longest horizontal wells reached four kilometres, while vertical wells are now frequently drilled to depths below five kilometres."
A recent press release datelined `Calgary, Alberta' informs that GSPC has completed drilling the KG#16 (in Krishna Godavari basin) well "to a total depth (TD) of 5,372 metres measured depth (MD) (5,369 metres total vertical depth (TVD))."